RAPID PROTOTYPING SERVICE
Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS/DMLM)

Surface Finishes & Tolerances

Typical Held Tolerance
Dimensional Accuracy
Material Standard Metric
Aluminum (AlSi10Mg) ±0.004inch ±0.102mm
Titanium (Ti64) ±0.001inch ±0.0254mm
Stainless (PH1) ±0.001inch ±0.0254mm
Maraging Steel (MS1) ±0.002inch ±0.0508mm
Inconel (IN718) ±0.002inch ±0.0508mm
Minimum Recommended Wall Thickness
Material Standard Metric
Aluminum (AlSi10Mg) 0.012 - 0.016 inch 0.308-0.406mm
Titanium (Ti64) 0.012 - 0.016 inch 0.308-.406mm
Stainless (PH1) 0.012 - 0.016 inch 0.308-0.406mm
Maraging Steel (MS1) 0.008-0.020inch 0.203-0.508mm
Inconel (IN718) 0.011-0.015inch 0.279-.0381mm
Density
All materials we use have an approximately 100% relative density
Material Standard Metric
Aluminum (AlSi10Mg) 0.096 lb/in3 2.67 g/cm3
Titanium (Ti64) 0.159 lb/in3 4.41 g/cm3
Stainless (PH1) 0.28 lb/in3 7.8 g/cm3
Maraging Steel (MS1) 0.289 - 0.293 lb/in3 8.0 - 8.1 g/cm3
Inconel (IN718) 0.296 lb/in3 8.2 g/cm3
Surface Finish
All surface roughness is measured in Ra (roughness average)
Material Surface Standard Metric
Aluminum (AlSi10Mg) Horizontal 0.00024-0.00039" 6-10 µm
Alum"um (AlSi10Mg) Vertical 0.00118-0.00157" 30-40 µm
Titanium (Ti64) Performance Horizontal 0.00036-0.00047" 9-12 µm
Titanium (Ti64) Performance Vertical 0.00160-0.00320" 40-80 µm
Titanium (Ti64) Speed Horizontal 0.00023-0.00039" 6-10 µm
Titanium (Ti64) Speed Vertical 0.00137-0.00157" 35-40 µm
Stainless (PH1) Horizontal 0.00010-0.00020" 2.5-4.5 µm
Stainless (PH1) Vertical 0.00060-0.00160" 15-40 µm
Maraging Steel (MS1) Horizontal 0.00016-0.00025" 4-6.5 µm
Maraging Steel (MS1) Vertical 0.00078-0.00195" 20-50 µm
Inconel (IN718) Horizontal 0.00016-0.00025" 4-6 µm
Inconel (IN718) Vertical 0.00078-0.00195" 20-50 µm
Surface Finish Ra (Roughness Average)
VDI MICRO
METER
MICRO
INCH
RMS
-2 0.08 3.14 3.9
-1 0.09 3.54 4.4
0 0.1 4 4.9
1 0.11 4.4 5.5
2 0.12 4.8 5.9
3 0.14 5.6 6.9
4 0.16 6.4 7.9
5 0.18 7.2 8.9
6 0.2 8 9.9
7 0.22 8.8 10.8
8 0.25 10 12.3
9 0.28 11.2 13.8
10 0.32 12.8 15.8
11 0.35 14 17.2
12 0.4 16 19.5
13 0.45 18 22
14 0.5 20 24.5
15 0.56 22.4 27
16 0.63 25.2 31.3
17 0.7 28 35.2
18 0.8 32 39
19 0.9 36 44.4
20 1 40 49.3
21 1.12 44.8 54.6
22 1.26 50.4 62.4
23 1.4 56 70.3
24 1.62 63 78
25 1.8 72 88.2
26 2 80 98.9
27 2.2 88 109.2
28 2.5 100 123.9
29 2.8 112 138.5
30 3.2 125 153.7
31 3.5 140.4 175.5
32 4 160 197.5
33 4.5 180 218.8
34 5 200 248.6
35 5.6 224 277.9
36 6.3 250 306.2
37 7 280 351
38 8 320 400
39 9 360  
40 10 400  
41 11.2 448  
42 12.6 500  
43 14 560  
44 16 640  
45 18 760  
The most common surface roughness parameter is Ra, or Arithmetic It basically reflects the average height of roughness component Ra provides a simple value for accept/reject decisions. Default parameter if not otherwise specified, and available even in the least Ra is not a good discriminator for different types of surfaces as it is incapable of differentiating between "spiky" and "scratched" surfaces.
Surface Finish Roughness Parameters
Surface Finish Roughness Depths

Surface Finish Roughness Comparison
Ra µm 50 37.5 25 12.5 6.3 3.2 1.6 0.8 0.4 0.2 0.1 0.05 0.025 0.012
Ra µin (CLA) 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 250 125 63 32 16 8 4 2 1 0.5
Tube Finishing                                                        
Hot Extruded                                                      
Cold Drawn                                                    
Smooth Bore                                                    
Electroplished                                                
Metal Cutting                                                        
Sawing                                        
Planing,Shaping                                            
Drilling                                                
Milling                                            
Boring, Turning                                        
Broaching                                                
Reaming                                                
Abrasive                                                        
Grinding                                        
Barrel Finishing                                                
Honing                                            
Electro-polishing                                            
Electrolytic Grinding                                                  
Polishing                                                
Lapping                                            
Super Finishing                                            
Forming                                                        
Hot Rolling                                                    
Forging                                                
Extruding                                                
Cold Rolling, Drawing  
Roller Burnishing
Other                                                        
Flame Cutting
Chemical Milling
Electron Beam Cutting
Laser Cutting
EDM
Ra µm 50 37.5 25 12.5 6.3 3.2 1.6 0.8 0.4 0.2 0.1 0.05 0.025 0.012
Ra µin (CLA) 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 250 125 63 32 16 8 4 2 1 0.5
Useful Definitions
Term Definition
Ra
AA
CLA
Roughness average (Ra) is the arithmetic average of the absolute values of the roughness profile ordinates. Also known as Arithmetic Average (AA) and Center Line Average (CLA). The average roughness is the area between the roughness profile and its mean line, or the integral of the absolute value of the roughness profile height over the evaluation length
Rq
RMS
Root mean square roughness (Rq) aka Root Means Square (RMS) is the square root of the sum of the squares of the individual heights and depths from the mean line.
Rp Roughness peak maximum profile peak height
Rmax Maximum Roughness Depth is the largest single roughness depth w/in the elevation length. Rz expressed in micrometres or microinches.
Rt Roughness total is the maximum peak to valley height.
Rz Mean Roughness Depth (Rz) is the arithmetic mean value of the single roughness depths of consecutive sampling lengths. Z is the sum of the height of the highest peaks and the lowest valley depth within a sampling length.Rz = (Rp +Rp)
Rzi Single Roughness Depth is the vertical distance between the highest peak and the deepest valley within a sampling length.
Rv The maximum depth of the profile below the mean line.
Sampling Length The reference for roughness evaluation. Its length is equal to the cutoff wavelength.
1 µm "micron" a metric unit 0.001 mm or 0.0000394"
0.1 in = tenth 0.01in = hundredth 0.001in = thousandth ("one thou")

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